his article is about the country. For other uses, see Pakistan (disambiguation).

Coordinates30°N 70°E

Islamic Republic of Pakistan

اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان (Urdu)
Islāmī Jumhūriyah-yi Pākistān

Flag Emblem
Motto: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm
ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu)
"Faith, Unity, Discipline" [1]
Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah
قومی ترانہ
"The National Anthem"[2]



Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory shown in light green.

Area controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled territory shown in light green.

Capital Islamabad
33°40′N 73°10′E
Largest city Karachi
Official languages English,Urdu[3][4][5][6][7]
Recognised national languages Urdu
Regional languages PunjabiPashto,SindhiBalochi,KashmiriBrahui,ShinaBaltiKhowar,Burushaski Yidgha,DameliKalasha,Gawar-Bati,Domaaki[8][9]
Religion Islam
Demonym Pakistani
Government Federal parliamentaryrepublic
 •  President Mamnoon Hussain
 •  Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif
 •  Chief Justice Anwar Zaheer Jamali
 •  Chairman of the Senate Raza Rabbani
 •  Speaker of the National Assembly Sardar Ayaz Sadiq
Legislature Majlis-e-Shoora
 •  Upper house Senate
 •  Lower house National Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
 •  Conception[10] 29 December 1930 
 •  Declaration 28 January 1933 
 •  Resolution 23 March 1940 
 •  Dominion 14 August 1947 
 •  Islamic Republic 23 March 1956 
 •  Total 881,913 km2[a] (36th)
340,509 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 3.1
 •  2015 estimate 199,085,847[12] (6th)
 •  Density 260.8/km2 (55th)
675.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2015 estimate
 •  Total $930.759 billion[13](26th)
 •  Per capita $4,902[13] (136th)
GDP (nominal) 2015 estimate
 •  Total $270.961 billion[13](42nd)
 •  Per capita $1,427.08[13] (153rd)
Gini (2008) 30.0[14]
HDI (2014) Increase 0.538[15]
low · 147th
Currency Pakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)
 •  Summer (DST)  (UTC+6b)
Drives on the left[16]
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk
a. See also Pakistani English.:
b. Not always observed; see Daylight saving time in Pakistan.

Pakistan (Listeni/ˈpækᵻstæn/ or Listeni/pɑːkiˈstɑːn/Urduپاكستان‎ ALA-LCPākistān, pronounced [pɑːkɪst̪ɑːn] ( listen)), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان‎ ALA-LCIslāmī Jumhūriyah-yi Pākistān IPA: [ɪslɑːmiː d͡ʒʊmɦuːriəɪh pɑːkɪst̪ɑːn]), is a country in South Asia with a population exceeding 199 million people.[12] It is the sixth most populous country and with an area covering 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi), it is the 36th largest country in the world in terms of area. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650 mi) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west,Iran to the southwest and China in the far northeast respectively. It is separated from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's narrow Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares amaritime border with Oman.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including HindusIndo-GreeksMuslimsTurco-MongolsAfghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid EmpireAlexander of Macedonia, the ArabUmayyad Caliphate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and the British Empire. As a result of the Pakistan Movement led byMuhammad Ali Jinnah and the subcontinent's struggle for independence, Pakistan was created in 1947 as an independent nation for Muslims from the regions in the east and west of Subcontinent where there was a Muslim majority. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a new constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. A civil war in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic consisting of four provinces and four federal territories. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a similar variation in its geography and wildlife. A regional and middle power,[17][18] Pakistan has the seventh largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, being the only nation in the Muslim world, and the second in South Asia, to have that status. It has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector, its economy is the 26th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power and 45th largest in terms of nominal GDP and is also characterized among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world.[citation needed]

The post-independence history of Pakistan has been characterised by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with neighbouring India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulationterrorismpovertyilliteracy, and corruption. Despite these factors it maintains strategic endowments and development potential while it has made substantial progress in reducing poverty giving it the second lowest headcount poverty rate in South Asia.[19] It is ranked 16th on the 2012 Happy Planet Index,[20] while its stock exchange has been among the highest performing in Asia.[21] It is a member of the United Nations, theCommonwealth of Nations, the Next Eleven EconomiesShanghai Cooperation OrganisationECOUfCD8Cairns GroupKyoto ProtocolICCPRRCDUNCHRAsian Infrastructure Investment BankGroup of ElevenCPFTAGroup of 24, the G20 developing nationsECOSOC, founding member of the Organisation of Islamic CooperationSAARC and CERN.[22]